One of the most widely debated and controversial topics of our time, Evolution is a biological term referring to the period of time in which Earth has evolved from initial creation into the lush populated planet we know today.
The theory of evolution states that overtime, as new species began to evolve, the more dominant species were in greatest control of the Earth’s population. The more dominant a species, the more likely it would be able to reproduce and continue up the evolutionary ladder. Furthermore, characteristics from those dominant species would be the ones that would carry on to future generations. Otherwise known as natural selection or speciation, this gradual evolution accounts for the immensely diverse biological world we all live in today.
In theory, evolution is believed to have taken billions and billions of years, which has frequently conflicted with the religious beliefs of many. The idea of evolution was first recorded on paper by Charles Darwin in his 1859 book The Origin of Species. Darwin’s book offered the world of science its first rational and well-argued theory for a manner by which evolutionary global change had occurred and would continue to occur over time.
Vivo-Forto wishes to see that every citizen (starting with youngest child) on the planet flourish through mindful living, laughter combined with healthy food habits and exercises. Parents and teachers have a pivotal role to bring about this transformation.
We believe that every human being is a unique creation of the life force and that every one has the potentiality to explore and find The Truth in life without the help of any intermediary.
The revolutionary findings emerged from George Fox’s teachings and the writings of Neuro-theologists, sociologists, psychiatrist et. al. The founder, through his personal observations, found that all experiences - real or unreal - are the product of the brain. The real corroborates with the outside world and the unreal is a fiction of the mind. He thus refuses to tow the line of a metaphysical analysis of the phenomena called: ‘God’. If there is any God, it is in the human brain. God is the creation of Man. Man is the product of evolution. He rejects irrational and illogical explanations and the useless dictums of the scriptures promoted by the so called ‘prophets’, ‘messengers’ and ‘sons of god’. He believes God can be reached directly through prayer and meditation without any intermediaries. Thus Vivo Forto exhorts the whole of humanity to break free from the age old dogmatic teachings of religions and to breathe in the atmosphere of universal understanding where nature is the book and man is the temple of God. There is no Truth higher than Man.
The Organization takes birth
To give concrete shape to his real life experience, an organization was necessary. Thus Vivo Forto was born. It was registered in Philadelphia, USA in 1987. An Indian Chapter was opened in October 2001, close on the heels of the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre, New York.
1) To establish centers in every town, city and village and to train people in mindful meditation and universal prayer.
2) To publish literature on meditation and, to disseminate seminar articles and to distribute the same at a reasonable cost.
3) To collect and disseminate information on scientific findings in respect of the human brain and its response to mindful meditation.
4) To educate children at the school and college level on the harmful effects of smoking, drugs, use of chemicals
5) To promote universal peace and prosperity through mutual respect and peaceful coexistence.
All citizens of the world are natural member of this organization.
But to become an executive member one has to comply with the following:
1) He/she must be above 45 years of age and mentally sound.
2) He/she must possess an advanced degree or the equivalent.
3) He/she must be married, with at least one child.
4) He/she must not be a habitual drinker or smoker.
5) He/she must be in a position to spare time or money or both for the organizational work.
The Universal song
We are God, Om, Allah, Conscience, Christ, Krishna, Mohammed,
Guru, Moses, Buddha, Gandhi, Night and Day.
Wise being of the East & West practice the joyful way.
In the forest that is green; on the mountain that is high:
In the river that is restless; in the ocean that is grave
(repeat opening passage)
On the moon that is calm; in the sun that is might:
In the space that is vacuum beyond galaxies infinite. (repeat opening passage)
When we are serviceful that is service, when we’re lovers that is love; when we’re sorrowful that is sympathy, in our prayer that is bliss.
(repeat opening passage)
GEORGE FOX SONG
There's a light that is shining in the heart of a man,
It's the light that was shining when the world began.
There's a light that is shining in the Turk and the Jew
And a light that is shining, friend, in me and in you.
Walk in the light, wherever you may be.
Walk in the light, wherever you may be.
'In my old leather breeches and my shaggy, shaggy locks,
I am walking in the glory of the light,' said Fox!
With a book and a steeple, with a bell and a key
They would bind it forever but they can't (said he).
Oh, the book it will perish and the steeple it will fall,
But the light will be shining at the end of it all.
'If we give you a pistol, will you fight for the Lord?'
'But you can't kill the Devil with a gun or a sword!'
'Will you swear on the Bible?' 'I will not!' said he,
'For the truth is more holy than the book to me.'
'There's an ocean of darkness and I drown in the night
Till I come through the darkness to the ocean of light,
For the light is forever and the light it is free,
And I walk in the glory of the light,' said he.
The Theory of Everything
Albert Einstein had three great theories. His first theory of Special Relativity (1905) gave us E = mc², which led to the atomic bomb and unlocked the secret of the stars. His second great theory was General Relativity (1915), which gave us space warps, the Big Bang, and black holes. But many don't realize that his greatest theory was never finished: "a theory of everything". Einstein's crowning achievement was to have been the unified field theory, an attempt to "read the mind of God".
But on the third try, Einstein failed. He spent the last 30 years of his life chasing after an equation, perhaps no more than one inch long, that would explain all physical phenomena. Everything from Creation, to supernovas, to atoms and molecules, perhaps even DNA, people, and love was to be explained by this equation. If discovered, it was to have been the ultimate achievement of 2,000 years of investigation into the nature of space and matter, ever since the Greeks asked what was the smallest particle and the smallest unit of space. Although there are many unresolved questions, today the leading and, in fact, only candidate for the Theory of Everything is â€˜superstringâ€™ theory, defined in 10 dimensional hyperspace. Superstring theory, in turn may one day answer some of the deepest questions of the universe, such as:
•What happened before the big bang?
•Is it possible to build a time machine?
•Can we punch a hole in space?
Albert Einstein never managed to "read the mind of God"
Not only has the power of this theory startled the world of mathematics and shaken the world of physics, it is also the craziest theory ever proposed.
Evolution: One impressive theory
What, exactly, did Darwin's theory say?
In his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin laid out an explanation for the diversity of life, the relationships between plant and animal groups, and the way living things seem so perfectly adapted to their environments. He based his idea of natural selection on a number of influences including the observations he made in South America and the Galapagos Islands on his famous voyage of the Beagle.
He also spent time thinking about domestic animals, especially dogs and the special pigeons that the English were fond of breeding.
Darwin could see that offspring inherit traits that are similar to their parents but not exactly the same. He recognized there must be a source of heredity and a source of variation, although without genetics, he didn't understand that they could be one in the same.
Genetics wasn't well understood at the time, but Darwin realized there was some as-yet-unknown process of heredity by which traits were passed down - but not perfectly - so new variation was always arising.
That led to diversity on which natural selection could act.
Darwin's idea for natural selection was inspired by Thomas Malthus, who showed that creatures usually produce many more progeny than will survive. Darwin realized that nature would cull from each generation, leaving only those most well-adapted to environmental conditions. Over time, that could change the size or color or behavior of a species, eventually allowing new species to branch off from older ones.
Darwin first started to confide his idea to other scientists in the early 1840s but he didn't go public with it for nearly 20 years. He was reportedly worried about getting everything right, and also knew there would be scandalous implications about religion and the origin of human beings. His own wife was reportedly very devout and offended by any idea that seemed to contradict humanity's creation in the image of God.
What finally lit a fire under Darwin was a letter he received in 1858 from a lesser-known naturalist named Alfred Russell Wallace. The letter had a manuscript of Wallace's new theory, and it was identical to Darwin's natural selection. Wallace had come up with it independently. A year later, Darwin abandoned the scientific tome he had been working on, in favor of a shorter, more popularized version he called On the Origin of Species.
What did people believe before?
Darwin did not come in and stop people from believing in a literal interpretation of the bible. More than 200 years earlier, Galileo punched a hole in such dogmatic thinking by showing that the Earth was not the center of things. Some people even believed in evolution before Darwin's theory came along though they tended to call it "transmutation." What those pre-Darwinian evolutionists lacked was an understanding of how evolution worked.
The most prominent evolutionary theory to predate Darwin's was formulated by a French naturalist named Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. He proposed that living things progressed from "lower" to "higher" through what he called a "great chain of being." In Larmarck's version of evolution, living things could pass down traits they'd acquired during their lifetimes-most famously the giraffe that would stretch its neck to reach leaves, thus giving birth to yet longer-necked offspring. Lamarck also believed that evolution stretched toward the goal of producing mankind. Darwin argued against any directionality or goal in evolution.
In arguing for lack of directionality, Darwin was influenced by an earth scientist named Charles Lyell. Lyell proposed that the Earth existed for millions of years and that it changes over time without progressing in any way. The earth changes with no ultimate goal, and life adapts with those changes.
Darwin also challenged the idea that there was some wall between species. He saw a more continuous variation as different varieties of a species could gradually branch off to become a species of their own.
How did the world react to Darwin's idea when he published it in 1859?
Origin sold out its first printing. Many people claimed they'd already thought of the idea themselves.
Educated people were pretty quick to embrace the idea that life evolved, said Penn philosopher of science Michael Weisberg. But many didn't grasp Darwin's concept of natural selection as the mechanism underlying evolution. People also clung to the old Lamarckian idea of evolution as progress. Some still do.
There was also some controversy over where humans came from and how we fit into the tree of life. Soon after the publication of Origin, a famous took place in Oxford, England, at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Arguing for Darwin's idea was biologist Thomas Huxley, and against it was Samuel Wilberforce, who famously asked Huxley whether he was descended from an Ape on his grandmother's or grandfather's side.
What's Darwin's evidence?
Much of the evidence for Darwin's theory was already out there, waiting to be tied together with one unifying idea. In Origin, Darwin documents extensive observations of plants and animals he made in his Native England and on his voyage. He noticed patterns that backed his idea-he noticed that successful species often had many closely related "varieties" just as larger categories that were well-adapted had many closely related species. He proposed that varieties were incipient species. He also made many observations of domestic animals. Breeding pigeons was popular in 19th century England and so Darwin made many observations of these birds. He also conducted experiments among the plants in his own garden to back some of his ideas.
Some people found Darwin's idea obvious, according to historian William Bynum. Others slapped their heads and wondered why they didn't think of it first. Natural selection helped explain the pattern of similarities across living things. It helped explain the way the turtles and finches of the Galapagos looked different from island to island.
And it explained the fossils people had been collecting for several hundreds years and the way those fossils varied depending on the layer of strata they came from.
Has further evidence been found subsequently?
Darwin's theory did hit a couple of snags in the early years. The first one came, ironically, from genetics, according to Penn's Weisberg. Unbeknownst to Darwin, while he was working on evolution, a monk named Gregor Mendel was working out the laws of inheritance using pea plants. But unlike Darwin, who was a prominent scientist, Mendel was an obscure figure in his own time and wasn't discovered by the scientific community until the early 20th century.
Darwin had no idea how living things managed to inherit traits from their ancestors, but he did insist that changes were very small and gradual. Mendel figured out a set of laws through which traits could be inherited - genetics - but it wasn't always as gradual as Darwin thought. In Mendel's famous pea plants, for example, seeds could go from smooth to wrinkly in a generation.
For a decade or so, scientists were actually divided into Mendelians and Darwinists, the two seeming to be incompatible, said Penn's Weisberg.
In the 1920s, scientists began to put the two together into a synthesis that became neo Darwinism. Since then, science has uncovered DNA as the material that makes up the genes. They've also compared DNA from different creatures to show that Darwin was correct to connect them all into one big family tree.
Where do humans fit into all this? Did we really evolve from apes?
Yes. We did not evolve from any of the existing apes, but from a line of now-extinct apes. On that lineage are all the common ancestors we shared with chimps and other existing apes. That doesn't conflict with the fact that we're very different from our fellow apes in many way; we're mostly hairless, walk upright, can talk, have different dietary needs and a different mating system. A lot can happen in a few million years.